Muscle Building In The Pool: Swimming Workouts

There are lots of people out there that are wondering how to build muscle. If you’re one of those people, you have come to the right place. Building muscle can be done if you have patience and dedication. This article will help you begin in your quest to build muscle.

Do more repetitions, not heavier. The ideal workout to build muscle contains a high number of repetitions at a medium level of intensity. Keep your breaks between sets under a minute. This constant repetition causes a buildup of lactic acid in your muscles, which has been observed to stimulate muscle growth.

Building muscle will require you to eat more of a variety of foods. You should eat enough to gain a pound every week. Seek out ways to get more calories, and if you should not see any weight gain after two weeks, think about consuming more calories.

When following a lifting routine, try to always workout your abs last. When you train your abs before a large body part, you can decrease your strength and increase your chances of getting injured. This is why you should do your ab workout after your main workout, or you could simply make it a separate workout during a different time.

Patience is the key. You are not going to develop rock hard muscle mass overnight. You are going to have to work long and hard to get the results that you hope for. Do not allow yourself to become discouraged if you are not seeing the results you hoped for. Keep your goals reasonable and safe.

Consider using a creatine supplement. The consumption of five grams a day may make it possible for you to lift longer and harder, leading to the maximized growth of muscles. This particular supplement should not be used by teenagers, and avoided altogether by anyone with untreated health problems. To be safe, check with your doctor before beginning use. Find out here concept2 model d indoor rowing machine with pm5 for your home gym.

Try to make sure you stretch out your muscles while you work out. If you are under 40 years old, maintain the stretch for at least 30 seconds. Those over forty ought to hold onto their stretches for about a minute. This helps to prevent injuries after you have exercised to build muscle.

If you choose to take any supplements to aide in your muscle building routine, do so cautiously. Many supplements are a complete waste of money, and some can even be harmful to your health. Discuss any of your supplement plans with your physician or a licensed dietician to make sure that you are not harming your body.

Hydration is a vital component in muscle building. If you are not keeping yourself well hydrated with water, there is a good chance that you would injure your muscles or yourself. Hydration also facilitates the increase and maintenance of muscle mass.

Keep good records. Have a workout diary, which notes the exercises in your workout routine, and how many reps and sets you perform. This not only helps to keep your workouts organized, but you can see your progress. This is inspiring, especially at first when progress is made rapidly. You can see how far you have come and set goals.

Watch for scams that promise the ultimate level of success with one exercise. Muscle building requires that you switch up your routine sometimes, and do exercises that will work a variety of muscles. If all you are doing is working with one machine or on one isolated routine, you will never see the results that you are really looking for.

Keep protein going into your body both before and after a workout for maximum muscle building effects. About half an hour to an hour before working out, make sure to consume a good 20 grams of protein. This can easily be accommodated with a couple of glasses of milk or protein shake. Do the same an hour after your work out also, and you will enhance your muscle-building efforts!

Now that you have gone over this article, you should have a better understanding on how to build muscle. If you’re ready, there’s no time like today to get started. Just dedicate yourself to building your muscles and take what you’ve learned from reading this to get your muscles built today!

Make Yourself At Home With Home Improvement

People start home improvement projects for different reasons. Some people get bored and need a change. Other people do it to increase their home’s value. Some just love to complete home renovation projects. Regardless of your reason for home improvement, you are sure to enjoy these home improvement tips.

Minor home improvements have a small but cumulative effect on property value. Setting and achieving modest goals for repair and improvement projects is a good way to keep home value moving upwards. These “little fixes” are cheaper and faster than major renovations and can even make a fun leisure activity for the handy homeowner.Home

If you’re interested in home improvement, a good place to start is by experimenting with color schemes. You can do this by getting swatches from your local paint store, or using a variety of online color scheme websites and apps. Doing this can be creative and fun, and inspire you to think of ideas you might not have had if you had focused on details like furnishings straight away.

Determine the style that you desire before engaging in a renovation project for your home. The decorating style that you choose should serve as the catalyst for your project. If you do not plan ahead, you can easily end up mixing various styles without even realizing it. The time you then spend making necessary changes will be quite costly.

An extremely simple way to improve your home is to change out your air filters. Not only do allergens and dust creep into your air ducts when the filter is too clogged, but the efficiency of your system can be brought down by neglecting to change the filters. This is very important to do often if you have pets in the house.

In order to get the most out of your air conditioning and heating system, clean or replace your air filters. Dirty air filters can reduce air flow in your vents, causing your system to work harder to cool or heat your home, therefore using more energy and costing you more money. You can find replacement filters at your local hardware store or even sometimes at your local supermarket.

You can make really neat one of a kind plant stands from old stools. You can buy some old stools from yard sales, garage sales or your local thrift shop. The older the better and the more unique your plant stand will be. Weathered stools that you use as a plant stand can add a touch of unique country to your home decor.

You can freshen up the look of any room by changing the flooring. Installing floor yourself is not very hard, but most home improvement stores have a quick and affordable installation option available. If you don’t want to install it yourself, seek the help of a professional.

If you’re looking to add variety to your rooms with paint you can do it very quickly and cost effectively. Paint one wall a different striking color in your room that doesn’t match the other wall colors. This will create a new focal point in your room and make your space feel like it just had a real update.

Choose wallpaper patterns carefully. Avoid using overpowering patterns in small spaces; conversely, using a bold design in a very large room will make it appear cozier. Never use a patterned wallpaper if you have patterned carpet or window coverings. For a room full of awkward corners and recesses, pick a wallpaper with a random design that the eye doesn’t tend to follow. This will help to disguise any imperfections in the walls.

Install energy saving windows in your home. They will lower your energy bills while keeping you cool in the summer and warm in the winter. They also increase the value of your home as buyers love new energy saving amenities. Take the time to pick windows that are visually appealing and fit your home’s motif.

Home improvement is something that applies to everyone from time to time. Home improvements might be done for various reasons, but it is always a reality. Whether it’s for looks or money, renovating a home can be enjoyed by anyone with any motivation.

Most Important Woodworking Tips and Techniques For Starters

If you are starting out with some unique woodworking project ideas and would like to build your first pieces of art, there are certain woodworking tips and techniques which can help you master this art. While beginners may need it most, there are certain techniques that can be very useful to experienced woodworkers as well. This article will explore three important aspects of woodworking tips and techniques, namely; understanding the kind of wood you are dealing with, preventing tear outs and different types if chisels and how to use them.

Although basic, they are essential knowledge for anyone taking up woodwork.

Understanding your wood

Every type of hardwood is made up of small pipelines or vessels, which are used in the production of sap. The size of these vessels varies and some are big enough to be visible to the eye. When cut across, they are called pores and this is why hardwoods are called “porous woods”. The uniformity and appearance of hardness in a certain kind of wood is affected by the distribution, number and size of these pores. “Non-porous woods” have no vessels and are called softwoods for this reason. The following types of woods can be used in woodwork.


Also called Softwoods, these have no vessels and water is conducted through tracheid cells instead. However, the growth-ring characteristic varies in different softwoods. The growth rings are non-distinct in white pines, and like diffuse-porous woods, the stain uptake is fairly even. The growth rings are visible yellow pine, in latewood, the stain uptake is not as pronounced as in early wood, as they are ring-porous woods.

Semi-ring Porous or Semi-diffuse Porous

In species like black walnut and butternut, pores are smaller in the latewood and larger towards the earlywood, but the lack the clear demarcation in zoning as seen in woods which are ring-porous. Also, species like cottonwood are occasionally tended to be semi-ring porous but are usually simply ring porous.

Ring Porous

In oak and ash, the pores are uniform in size and evenly distributes in the latewood while the largest pores are visible in the earlywood. Distinct figures and patterns are visible in these woods which become more pronounced because of the uneven uptake of stain. These are called open-grain woods as well.

Diffuse Porous

In species like maple, yellow poplar and cherry, the pores have a fairly even distribution across the latewood and earlywood. Small-diameter pores are found to in most domestic diffuse-porous woods, while tropical types of this wood like mahogany have large pores in comparison. These woods typically have an even stain uptake and there is yet to be a scientifically proven explanation when it comes to singling out the cause of blotching). These types of woods are also called closed-grain woods.  Know more about best dewalt router table as we explore every tiny detail.

Understanding and preventing Tear Out

Tear-out is something that is undeniably ugly for all woodworkers and woodworking projects. The key to preventing this from happening is by understanding why it happens in the first place. The first true dive into the understanding wood and why tear out happens was started in the 1950s by Norman C. Franz. It showed how wood can fail when you use hand tools or power tools to cut it. With the use of a milling machine and a movie camera, Franz was able to make awesome photos that showed how certain cuts can grain to tear. Franz showed three types of cuts, stating that only one kind can lead to tearing. The tear-out depends on the line you are cutting at. Whether or not tear out happens depends on whether you are traveling above or below this line.

“Type I” Cut Against the Grain = Tear-out

A “Type I” cut can occur when you are cutting and the wood fails ahead of the edge. The cut goes deeper than is actually intended and this leads to the shaving being levered upwards, this happens mostly when the tool is cutting against the grain of the board. The failure happens because the cutter travels below the line and consequently you get tear out.

“Type I” Cut Along the Grain = No Tear-out

In a “Type I” cut, no tear out occurs because you are working along the grain of the board and the cutter is basically traveling above the line.

“Type II” Cut = No Tear-out

A “Type II” cut, regardless of whether it is against the grain or with it, the wood tends to fail right at the edge, but there is no tear-out. A “Type II” cut can be encouraged with the use of a sharp tool, a tight mouth aperture or a high angle of attack.

“Type III” Cut Can Cause a “Type I” Cut

A “Type III” cut can be achieved by using a high angle of attack and compressing the wood fibers at the cutting edge. However, this compressed wood may become problematic. It may become so compressed that it turns into a wedge and the wood fibers are levered up in front of the cutting edge, leading to consequently torn grain.

Understand Chisels and Chiseling techniques

Knowing the type of chisel you require is very essential to be able to get good at woodworking techniques.

Mortising Chisel:

It has a thick blade which allows the tool to be pushed with a mallet and helps in levering out waste in mortises. A variant of this chisel is the firmer chisel, also having a thick blade, although less thick than a mortising chisel. It is made for work which is comparatively heavier. The butt chisel is also a variant, it is a firm chisel and has a short blade.

Bevel-edge Chisel:

This tool can get into tight spaces because of the long edges which are at an angle. It is ideal for tight spaces like between dovetails. It cannot be used for heavy chopping. A common variant has a thinner, longer blade and is called a paring chisel.

Common Chiseling Techniques

  • The most important detail that needs to be looked after is the position you are at when using a particular tool. Be at a position where you can see the profile of the tool and determine it is at an angle of 90. Always use the cutting edge to define your layout lines.
  • When paring, it is important to have both control and power to get your desired result. For this, it is best to use one hand to push the tool and the other to steer the blade.
  • Scraping is also a very useful technique one can use when working with a chisel. It is ideal for making hand-cut joints cleaner, particularly rabbits and tenons.

If one is well versed in the above-given woodworking tips and techniques, it is very easy to make rapid progress and to get to the next level.

Article Credits:

9 Ways to Save Money on Your Wedding Reception

After almost 30 years of helping bridal couples plan their weddings, I’ve refined the following ideas as the easiest and most common ways to keep costs under control:

  1. Invite fewer guests. It sounds silly, but this one choice can have the single largest impact on your total budget. Caterers charge by the person for food plus you may need to rent additional equipment for larger groups. Often, having fewer guests will mean that you are able to choose a nicer menu that would be beyond your budget for a larger group.
  2. Schedule your wedding for a very early afternoon. An afternoon reception is usually shorter than an evening reception, resulting in lower staff costs. It is perfectly acceptable to offer only light appetizers or a light lunch for an afternoon reception. Guests will expect a meal to be served at evening receptions.
  3. Have your wedding during the week. Saturdays are the most popular days for weddings and venue rates are always highest on weekends. Most locations offer lower rental rates on Fridays or Sundays. Caterers and other vendors often will charge less for receptions held on weekdays.
  4. Pick a date during the off season. Most weddings are held May through September. Have your wedding during the slow season when venue rates are usually lower. Many wedding vendors offer lower prices or other incentives during their slow season as well. 
  5. Choose a location that includes tables and chairs in the rental rate. Having to rent your own tables and chairs can add substantially to your total bill.
  6. Choose a location and caterer that will allow you to provide your own alcoholic beverages. Clubs and other locations that provide liquor service make a substantial amount of their profit on alcohol sales. Providing your own beverages can save a great deal of money. Check with your caterer to see if they allow you to bring your own beverages and if they charge corkage fees.
  7. Hire a disc jockey rather than a band. Disc jockeys will play any type of music you want – at a much lower rate than a band.
  8. Have your friends and family set up and decorate the hall. Friends will offer to help you with your wedding – let them!
  9. Use disposable serving items instead of china & glass. Not only are China and glassware more expensive than disposables, their use also requires additional staff for set up, bussing and dishwashing.

By choosing one or several of the above money saving ideas, you can reduce the total costs for your wedding reception.

Adhering to a financial plan can be precarious with regards to your wedding, clearly we as a whole the most elite for our ‘Enormous day’. In any case, when a normal of more than half of your spending will be going towards the cooking and bar tab, its vital to discover approaches to cut costs, spare cash and still have the supernatural wedding day you’ve generally longed for. Working direct with cooks and scenes, our Experts know firsthand the little-known techniques that will enable you to squeeze pennies on providing food costs, so you can allocate a greater amount of your financial plan to the fun customized touches that fill your heart with joy genuinely yours!

My most important piece of advice is saved for last: decide what’s most important to you about your reception and allow enough in your budget to accomplish that dream. Make less costly choices on items that are not as important to you.

Your wedding day should be joyous and stress-free. Once you’ve made your choices, relax and have a wonderful day!

How to make people cake pops for Christmas

December is finally here and there are only 24 days left until the big day. I still can’t believe this year has gone by so fast. If you are still thinking of what to make for your upcoming holiday party / Christmas bake exchange, why not give my newest cake pop creation a try? I think these little guys are THE CUTEST things ever! Just look at them all cozy and bundled up in their parkas/jackets with fur-lined hoods. The little pink rosey cheeks make them look like they just came in from the chilly weather outside.


You will need the following items:

• round cake balls (click here to learn how to make cake pop balls)
• white chocolate wafers
• white chocolate wafers colored in orange candy color (drop 1 drop at a time and mix until your desired color is achieved) — This is for making a light peach color. Use different candy color if you want the tanned skin.
• green candy melt
• brown chocolate wafers
• shredded coconut
• mini pink sprinkles
• toothpicks
• styrofoam block
• black Americolor edible pen
• pink Americolor edible pen (optional — only if you want to draw in pink cheeks)
• small clear bags and ribbon to package your cake pops (optional)

1 – Dip a lollipop stick into some candy melt and stick it into the cake ball.
2 – Dip the face area into the peach-colored candy.
3 – Dip the rest of the cake ball into the green candy melt. Use a toothpick to cover the chin area. Let it dry completely.
4 – With a toothpick, coat the fur area around the face (approximately 1/4″ thick) with white chocolate wafers and stick shredded coconut on it. Add another layer of white chocolate wafers and shredded coconut to build up the fuzziness. Let it dry completely.
5 – With a toothpick, draw on the hairstyle of your choice using brown chocolate wafers.
6 – Draw on the eyes and mouth with a black edible pen.
7 – Stick 2 mini pink sprinkles on the cheek area. You can also draw on the cheeks with a pink edible pen rather than using sprinkles.


Here’s the back view. ♥

Here’s the front view. ♥

Give this tutorial a try and let me know how it goes. Good luck!

How about we talk cake pops. Cake pops have point of fact end up plainly one of those most mainstream sweet treat slants in years. We have the magnificent Bakerella, Angie Dudley, to thank for acquainting us with such a fun treat. At whatever point I appear at a gathering or get together with cake pops, they are constantly exceptionally generally welcomed and particularly delighted in.

While cake pops are absolutely a fun treat to share and eat, they can be a test to make. I am in no way, shape or form a specialist cake pop producer, however I have invested some energy making cake pops utilizing three distinct techniques, and figured I would assemble that data in one post, also some incredible assets on different locales to help you in making cake pops.

I have been really genuine that I simply don’t love the first technique. I don’t know why – I mean I cherish cake, I adore icing, yet together, it simply doesn’t do it for me. I will state that unique cake pops made with custom made icing taste universes preferred to me over canned icing. The in addition to side of this strategy is you don’t need to purchase any hardware. The drawback to me is baking a cake initially to make them, and I’m frequently so in a rush, that this additional progression is sufficient to influence me to go another way.

Father’s Day Cupcake Ideas

Celebrating Father’s Day

Father’s Day is a day for children of any age to honor their father. Fathers are very special men, who, along with mothers, share the responsibility for building and maintaining the family. There are many ways in which to show thankfulness to fathers on Father’s Day. At Scrumps Cupcakes we want to help honor your Father with a box of our delicious cupcakes. These are not your average sprinkled cupcakes, these are what I like to call Man-Cakes.

A Little History About Father’s Day

After the war, he remained in western Arkansas near Fort Smith in a township called Marion which was located in Sebastian County, Arkansas. In 1865, William married Elizabeth L. Harris and had five children with only four surviving infancy. Elizabeth died in 1878. Shortly thereafter, in 1880, William married Ellen Victoria Cheek Billingsley. Ellen had been married before and had three children from the previous marriage. After the wedding vows were said, William and Ellen counted eight as the number of children combined through their marriage.6 During their marriage, William and Ellen had an additional six children together bringing the total number of children to fourteen.

One of William’s and Ellen’s children was Sonora Louis Smart, born on February 18, 1882, in Jenny Lind, Sebastian County, Arkansas. In 1889, when Sonora was 7 years old, William decided to move his entire family across the country, via train, to a town near Spokane, Washington, called Wilbur.

Nine years later in 1898, when Sonora was 16 years old, her mother, Ellen died to unknown reasons. As an older daughter among all her siblings, Sonora assisted her father by caring for her younger brothers. She continuously observed her father and how he spent endless hours caring for and raising all the children while working diligently trying to give them a better life. As Sonora sacrificed part of her life in helping to care for her siblings, she easily understood and admired her father’s sacrifice for all the children.

On November 4, 1899, Sonora married John Bruce Dodd. At a Mother’s Day service celebrated at the Central United Methodist Church in Spokane, Washington, Sonora began thinking about a day to celebrate fathers. As she honored her father so much, she felt that a perfect day for this celebration would be on William’s birth date of June 5th.

Sonora’s petition to hold Father’s Day on June 5th, 1910 was submitted too late for the Ministerial Alliance to adjust their sermons. The celebration would be held but the date would be June 19th of 1910. The sermon was “…presented by Reverend Dr. Conrad Bluhm at Sonora’s church, Old Centenary Presbyterian Church (now Knox Presbyterian Church).”

In 1913, Congress introduced a bill to establish each first Sunday of June as a day to recognize fathers. Congress voted the bill down. In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson attempted to make Father’s Day an official day of celebration by attending and speaking at the Father’s Day service in Spokane, Washington. However, Congress turned the bill down once again. President Calvin Coolidge tried in 1924 to nationalize Father’s Day but again, the day was not supported by Congress.

In 1966, “President Lyndon Johnson signed a Presidential Proclamation declaring the third Sunday of June as Father’s Day.”8 President Richard Nixon, in 1972, “established a permanent national observance of Father’s Day to be held on the 3rd Sunday of June each year.”

Celebrate Independence Day Cupcakes for the 4th of July

Time to celebrate the Independence Day. Going to a family gathering or cookout, well take a box of Scrumps Cupcakes with you. Nothing say Yummy… like Scrumps Cupcakes.


Celebrate Independence Day

Independence Day is a day of family celebrations with picnics and barbecues, showing a great deal of emphasis on the American tradition of political freedom. Activities associated with the day include watermelon or hotdog eating competitions and sporting events, such as baseball games, three-legged races, swimming activities and tug-of-war games.

Many people display the American flag outside their homes or buildings. Many communities arrange fireworks that are often accompanied by patriotic music. The most impressive fireworks are shown on television. Some employees use one or more of their vacation days to create a long weekend so that they can escape the heat at their favorite beach or vacation spot.

Independence Day is a patriotic holiday for celebrating the positive aspects of the United States. Many politicians appear at public events to show their support for the history, heritage and people of their country. Above all, people in the United States express and give thanks for the freedom and liberties fought by the first generation of many of today’s Americans. The Statue of Liberty is a national monument that is associated with Independence Day.
Public life

Americans just as of late praised their Independence Day but, the vast majority are as yet not over with the festival feel. Not by any stretch of the imagination beyond any doubt if everybody just got entirely languid of late yet in the event that you watch nearly, you can in any case observe enhancements and themed things identified with the fourth of July.

In any case, not all “past due” memorial things are futile and out of time, some still has a wonderful impact to the majority. Much the same as the highlighted sugary treat flawlessness today which not just allures us to overlook our eating routine designs, yet in addition remembers the bubbly environment of the day America turned into a nation it is presently. fourth of July cupcakes are about red, blue, and white icing. Not simply icing but rather all garnishes that can stylistic theme luscious prepared treats with things that can be related with the American flexibility or for this situation.

Independence Day is a federal holiday. If July 4 is a Saturday, it is observed on Friday, July 3. If July 4 is a Sunday, it is observed on Monday, July 5. Government offices and schools are closed. Some businesses may be closed as well. In some years, many employees use a proportion of their vacation days to create a long weekend. This can cause congestion in some places, particularly towards popular holiday destinations.

About Independence Day

In 1775, people in New England began fighting the British for their independence. On July 2, 1776, the Congress secretly voted for independence from Great Britain. The Declaration of Independence was first published two days later on July 4, 1776. The first public reading of the Declaration of Independence was on July 8, 1776. Delegates began to sign the Declaration of Independence on August 2, 1776. In 1870, Independence Day was made an unpaid holiday for federal employees. In 1941, it became a paid holiday for them.

The first description of how Independence Day would be celebrated was in a letter from John Adams to his wife Abigail on July 3, 1776. He described “pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations” throughout the United States. However, the term “Independence Day” was not used until 1791.

Flag Day Cupcakes

Celebrate Flag Day with an assortment of Scrumpscakes Cupcakes.

The official Flag Day observance is on June 14th of each year. Flag Day is a time to respect the flag, to celebrate its origin, and to honor those who created the first flag. The flag flies over the United States to remind us that we are one nation, a nation under God; to remind us that we are a nation that is indivisible; and to remind us each day of those who fought to protect all who live within this nation. Written by Francis Bellamy, The Pledge of Allegiance states clearly the pledge to the flag and to the nation: I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.


The American Revolutionary War began in 1775 between the colonies of the new world and Great Britain. The war was fought over the issue of taxation. During the early and middle 1700’s, Great Britain began taxing the colonies with Acts such as the Sugar Act of 1764, Currency Act of 1764, Stamp Act of 1765, Townshend Acts of 1767, Tea Act of 1773, Coercive Acts of 1774, New England Restraining Act of 1775 and many more. By 1775, the colonies had become frustrated with ‘taxation without representation’ from Great Britain.

On May 10, 1775, the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Shortly thereafter, war broke out between the thirteen colonies and Great Britain. A problem arose on the side of the colonies as there was not a united military force. Each individual colony had its own volunteer military force to battle the small skirmishes. In order to fight a large war, however, military cohesiveness between all the colonies was needed. On June 15th, 1775, George Washington was appointed the Commander-in-Chief of the military by the Second Continental Congress; Washington’s commission date was June 19th, 1775.1 “He accepted and served throughout the war without any compensation except for reimbursement of expenses.”2

When the war began and because of the lack of unity throughout the colonies, different flags were flown in different sections of the colonies. Some examples included the “‘Rattlesnake Flag’ used by the Continental Navy. Another naval flag had a green pine tree on a white background. Other flags were quite similar to Britain’s Union Jack or incorporated elements of it.”

Stars and Stripes

The Stars and Stripes flag contains the colors red, white and blue. There is no record known as to why these colors were chosen for the flag. “However, in 1782, the Congress of the Confederation chose these same colors for the Great Seal of the United States and listed their meaning as follows: white to mean purity and innocence, red for valor and hardiness, and blue for vigilance, perseverance, and justice.”8

There were, and still are, thirteen stripes on the flag. The colors of the stripes alternate red and white. Beginning with the red color on top, there are seven red stripes and six white stripes. Located in the upper left corner of the flag is a rectangular shaped blue section. The first flag contained thirteen white stars within the blue section placed in a circular design. Currently, there are fifty white stars within the blue section placed on a diagonal line design.

As stated previously, the first official flag contained thirteen stars sewn in a circular design within the blue section. There is no definite answer as to why the stars were placed in a circular manner. Some suggest that the circular design was chosen so that all colonies would be considered equal; others suggest the circular design was created as a new constellation such as those found in heaven. Whatever the reason, the importance of the stars was that each star represented one of the original thirteen original colonies. The original thirteen colonies were Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia. The remaining stars were added as a new state was accepted into the nation.

Flag Day

The originator of Flag Day is Bernard J. Cigrand. Born on October 1st, 1866 in Waubeka, Wisconsin, Cigrand was the last of six children born to Luxembourg immigrants, Nicholas and Susan Cigrand. “Inspired by his father, young Cigrand displayed an early interest in American history. He was a devout patriot with a great love of the flag of our nation.”

While attending dental school, Bernard also taught elementary classes at Stony Hill School located in Waubeka, a small town located approximate 34 miles north of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Because of his love for the Stars and Stripes flag, Bernard began his quest to create an annual flag day to observe the importance of the American flag. He wrote many articles and spoke at many events pertaining to the importance of celebrating the flag. “In June 1886 he made his first public proposal for the annual observance of the birth of the flag when he wrote an article titled ‘The Fourteenth of June’ in the Old Chicago Argus newspaper.”

Flag Day celebrations began to be held around the country with the first celebration held in Chicago, Illinois on June 16th, 1894, the third Saturday of the month. More than 300,000 children attended the celebration. During the following years, Flag Day celebrations continued to be observed on the third Saturday of the month of June.

As June 14th was the day the Second Continental Congress officially declared the national flag to be the Stars and Stripes, it was agreed upon by many governors and delegates in the early 1900’s that June 14th of each year should be nationally adopted as the official Flag Day of the nation. In 1916, “.President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation establishing Flag Day as an annual national event.”11 Thirty-three years later in August of 1949, Harry S. Truman signed into law the National Flag Day observance to occur on June 14th of each year. The National Flag Day observance is not a federal holiday; it is just an observance.